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In quadrupole mass analyzing devices, electric fields are used to separate ions according to their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) as they pass along the central axis of four parallel equidistant rods (or poles) that have fixed (DC) and alternating (RF) voltages applied to them. 

 

Topics include:

  • Quadrupole rods
  • Quadrupole voltages
  • Quadrupole electrostatic fields
  • Quadrupole ion trajectories
  • Equations of motion
  • Mass gain and offset
  • Resolution and sensitivity
  • Data acquisition modes
  • Scan vs. selected ion modes
  • RF only ion bridges
  • Mass accuracy
  • Quadrupole performance limitations
  • Scanning speeds