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Flow rates used in conventional LC separations using non-mass spectrometric detectors may not be compatible with LC-MS systems depending upon the eluent system and the atmospheric pressure ionization (API) interface type used. This module discusses how flow rates can be altered, or flow splitting can be used, to allow the successful coupling of HPLC and MS detection.

Topics include:

  • Interface similarities
  • The ESI interface
  • The APCI interface
  • Flow rates for APCI
  • Flow rates for ESI
  • Flow rates for pneumatically assisted ESI
  • Micro and nanoflow ESI
  • Flow rate incompatibility - reasons
  • Flow rate incompatibility - solutions
  • Flow splitting - overview
  • Flow splitting - adjustable flow splitters
  • Flow splitting - practicalities
  • MS detector
  • Columns - internal diameter
  • Columns - low flow rates
  • Capillary LC systems - overview
  • Capillary LC systems - practicalities
  • Column selection