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Many API interface parameters are set and never optimized to the detriment of the analysis. The fundamentals of the ionization processes involved in LC-MS will be detailed along with a discussion of the major components of ESI and APCI interfaces. We will look at the optimization of API interfaces and the effect that they can have on analytical results. Ion suppression can be an insidious problem which leads to poor sensitivity, understanding the causes of ion suppression will allow this problem to be remedied or avoided completely.


Topics include:

  • Process of ionization in LC-MS
  • Major interface parameters that require optimization in ESI and APCI
  • In ESI what effect will sprayer voltage and position, drying gas temperature, and flow rates have on analyses
  • Optimization of the major APCI interface parameters - vaporizing probe temperature, curtain gas, and nebulizer gas
  • How do you select the correct ionization modes
  • Tune vs. calibration for successful analyses
  • Causes of and remedies for ion suppression