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The basic principles of mass analysis using time-of-flight mass analyzers are relatively straightforward in comparison to many of the other typical mass analyzing devices. Ions are extracted (or produced) in short bursts or packets within the ion source and subjected to an accelerating voltage. The ions then drift or fly down an evacuated tube of set length.


Topics include:

  • Time-of-flight (ToF) mass analyzers
  • Equations of motion
  • Time-of-flight (ToF) resolution
  • The reflectron
  • Increased resolution using reflectrons
  • Time-of-flight performance limitations
  • Orthogonally accelerated ToF (oaToF) instruments
  • oaToF pusher electrodes
  • oaToF pusher pulse rate
  • oaToF deflecting voltage