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Electrospray is the dispersion of a liquid into electrically charged droplets, combining the two processes of droplet formation and droplet charging. The process of droplet charging is affected by eluent flow rate, liquid surface tension, and electrolyte concentration. This module explains the function of the major components of an electrospray interface and discusses ways to optimize signal using electrospray ionization.


Topics include:

  • Suitable analytes for ESI
  • Production of charged droplets at the capillary tip
  • Formation of the Taylor cone
  • Nebulization - overview
  • Nebulization - applied potential difference
  • Nebulization - spray breakdown and discharge
  • Electrospray production - pneumatic assistance
  • Electrospray production - eluent flow rate
  • Electrospray production - surface tension
  • Electrospray production - ionic strength
  • Droplet desolvation and Rayleigh fission
  • Droplet desolvation and jet fission
  • Gas phase ions - the Dole model
  • Gas phase ions - Iribarne/Thomson model
  • Gas phase ions - experimental factors
  • Gas phase ions - charge to droplet radius ratio
  • Gas phase ions - energy barriers
  • Gas phase ions - mass-to-charge ratio
  • Quantitative aspects - sensitivity constants
  • Sensitivity constants - droplet radius
  • Droplet surface activity