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The purpose of this module is to highlight the various steps in the protocol for various modes (sorbents) for conventional solid phase extraction procedures including: non-polar SPE, polar SPE, cation exchange SPE, anion exchange SPE, and mixed-mode SPE. For each mode the various portocol steps are examined in terms of the solvents and solutions used, sorbents used, solvent additives, pH, and ionic strength manipulation.

At the end of this unit you will be able to identify the correct SPE mode to optimize the selectivity of the procedure for the analyte of interest, choose the correct sorbent for various modes of SPE, optimize analyte retention through correct sorbent equilibration, conditioning, and sample loading by controlling sorbent activity, sample and sorbent ionic strength analyte and sorbent degree of ionization, maximize extract cleanliness by optimizing the wash solution solvent strength and ionic strength and pH where appropriate, and maximize analyte recovery and selectivity by optimizing the elution solvent and ionic strength and pH where appropriate.


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